Cyprus has minerals which are made up of metal or non-fossil and quarry materials which are made up of non-metallic or industrial minerals. The minerals in Cyprus are related to the Troodos Ophiolite Complex and include sulphide ores (deposits of pyrite, copper and other heavy metals together with gold and silver) and minerals of chrome and asbestos. These deposits have been created in a variety of geological horizons of the Ophiolite Complex of Troodos and have been brought to the surface as a result of the elevation of the Troodos Mountain.
The surface appearance of the various metal deposits, especially copper, resulted in its exploitation from antiquity. Cyprus is one of the first locations on earth in which the exploitation, process and use of copper occurred. The substitution of pyrite in the international market for the production of sulphuric acid and waste sulfuric acid by iron metallurgy installations, the penetration of chromite in the international market by South Africa with the new methods of ferrochrome production, and the substitution of chrome as pyrimachoy of other materials as well as the bias in the international market for the use of asbestos products, placed the exploitation of mineral deposits in recession.
The construction materials in Cyprus have also been exploited from antiquity. Its characteristics are umbers and the ochres which were used as dies for painting as well as the sandstone which was used as a building material during antiquity and the years which followed. Today there are sedimentary formations of all types and of geological periods, such as limestone in various grades and types, clay and plaster which are being exploited. Also intrusive formations such as altered volcanic formations like bentonite, undersea hydrothermic sediments such as umber and ochre red clay.
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